The Quran was sent down to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the 7th century. At that time, science was at a primitive level. People believed that the Sun went around the Earth and that the Earth was supported by whales. Against the backdrop of this ignorance, the Qur’an was sent down, which speaks of scientific facts in various fields. But the Quran is not a scientific book, it is a Holy book in which the Almighty warns about the future life, the Day of Judgment, retribution for deeds, where parables and stories of past generations are given, where it is said about the inner world of man, edifications and reminders are given.
Some might say that the text of the Qur’an may have changed with new discoveries. But this could not happen, because the Qur’an was written during the lifetime of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. One of the copies, recorded a few years after his death, is kept in the museum of Uzbekistan. And the text of this copy exactly coincides with the texts of those Arabic Qurans that are distributed today throughout the world. Here we present only some scientific facts from the Qur’an, confirming that this knowledge could descend only from the Creator, the Almighty.
Miracles of the Science in the Quran
The miracles of the Quran are layered and complicated. The holy book imparts knowledge on some of the most renowned miracles of science even before their discovery. The sacred book sheds information on the Theory of Relativity, Big Bang Theory, Genetics, Black Holes, and more. Evidently, the holy Quran and science are not alienated from each other. In fact, the scientific discoveries in the Quran are described in the form of Surahs. However, some of the Surahs were not easy to believe till science became advanced enough to prove the existence of such phenomena. Today, it is safe to say that complex phenomena are simply mentioned in the Quran, and science is a mere proof of the book’s information.
Modern Scientific Facts in the Quran
The mention of certain scientific inquiries in the holy Quran that were not known 14 centuries ago is indeed noteworthy. This blog features a compilation of nine scientific facts in the Quran.
1. The origin of life from water.
Allah Almighty says in the Qur’an: “Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were one and that We separated them and created all living things from water? Will they not believe?” (Sura Al Anbiya, verse 30) We all know that water is the source of life. But who could know about this in the desert Arabia of the 7th century? Organisms are made up of cells, and cells are mostly water. For example, 80% of the cytoplasm (basic cell material) of a standard animal organism is described in biology textbooks as water. This fact was discovered only after the invention of the microscope.
In the Qur’an, Allah Almighty says: “We also sent down iron, in which lies a mighty power and benefit for people” (sura “al Hadid”, “Iron”, ayat 25)
Iron is not a natural material on Earth. Scientists have discovered that millions of years ago the earth was “attacked” by meteorites, which contained iron “brought” from distant planets. The verse also refers to the “sending down” of iron, which implies that iron was not originally an “earthly” material, but was sent from outside the Earth.
3. Protection of the sky.
In the Qur’an, Allah Almighty says: “We have made the sky a guarded roof, but they turn away from its signs” (Sura Al Anbiya, verse 32) The sky plays a decisive role in protecting the earth. It protects the earth from the deadly rays of the sun. If there was no sky, solar radiation would kill everything on earth. It acts as a protective blanket or sheet covering the earth. Because the temperature outside the sky is -270 degrees Celsius. If this temperature reached the ground, everything would instantly freeze. And these are just some of the many functions of the sky.
The Qur’an says: “Have We not made the earth a bed and the mountains pegs?” (Sura An Naba, verses 6-7).
Pegs are an accurate description of the shape of mountains. In a book called The Earth, geophysicist Frank Press explains that mountains are like stakes “driven” into the ground. For example, Everest, whose height is 9 km, underground goes lower than 125 km. This property of mountains became known only at the beginning of the 20th century, with the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
5. Expansion of the Universe. The Qur’an says: “We raised the sky with might, and We expand it” (Sura “az Zariyyat”, ayat 47).
The fact of the expansion of the universe was discovered only in the last century. Stephen Hawking in A Brief History of Time writes: “The discovery of the expansion of the universe was one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of the 20th century.”
6. Solar orbit.
In the Quran, the Almighty says: “He is the One who created the night and the day, the sun and the moon. All float in orbits ”(Sura“ al Anbiya ”,“ Prophets ”, ayat 33)
For the first time, the hypothesis of the immobility of the Sun and the rotation of the planets around it was proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus in the 16th century. This hypothesis was supported by scientists until the 20th century. And those who adhered to it considered the Qur’anic verse to be wrong. But the research of the last century has discovered many new things, including the fact that the sun moves in an orbit. Thus, the truth revealed in the Koran received recognition and confirmation.
Allah Almighty compared disbelief with the darkness of the deep sea: “Or they are like darkness in the depths of the deep sea. It is covered by a wave, over which there is another wave, over which there is a cloud. One darkness on top of another! If he stretches out his hand, he will not see it. To whom Allah does not give light, there will be no light” (Sura “An Nur”, ayat 40).
Scientists believed that waves occur only on the surface of the ocean. However, oceanographers have discovered that there are also internal waves below the surface of the ocean. These waves are invisible to the human eye and can only be detected with special equipment. The Qur’an speaks of darkness in the depths of the ocean, covered with waves, then more waves, and clouds above them. This verse is “learned” not only by the fact that it speaks of internal waves, discovered not very long ago, but also by the description of the depth of darkness. A person can descend to a depth of 70 m (without equipment), and light is still visible there. But going down to a depth of 1000 m, we find that there is complete darkness.
8. Lies and movements.
In the Quran, God Almighty says: “But no! If he does not stop, then We will seize him by the crest – a deceitful, sinful crest” (Sura Al Alyak, verses 15-16).
This verse was revealed regarding Abu Jahl, one of the leaders of the polytheists, who obstructed the Muslims. It is noteworthy that in this verse he is not called a liar, but only his forehead is mentioned. Scientists have found that the frontal part of the brain, namely the prefrontal cortex, is responsible for lying. The frontal lobes are also responsible for conscious movements. Both lies and movements (“if he doesn’t stop”) are mentioned in connection with the “Khokhlo”, the frontal part of the brain.
9. Pain receptors.
For a long time it was believed that the brain is responsible for the sensation of pain. But then it turned out that pain receptors are located on the surface of the skin. Without them, a person cannot feel pain. Allah Almighty also says in the Quran: “Indeed, those who disbelieved in Our signs, We will burn them in Fire. Whenever their skin is ready, We will replace it with another skin so that they will taste the torment. Verily, Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Surah An Nisa, verse 56) When the skin burns, a person can no longer feel pain. Therefore, the Almighty warns that the skin will be renewed and the pain will continue. As a punishment for disbelief.
10. Embryology in Quran
Embryology is a branch of biology concerned with the study of fertilization and embryo development. The central religious text, at one point, talks about embryology and states a significant scientific fact in Quran. It says, “We created man from an extract of clay. Then we made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then we made the drop into an Alaqah (blood clot), then we made the Alaqah into a Mudghah…” (Quran 23:12-14).
Here the word ‘Alaqah’ can be defined as a leech, blood clot, or something suspended in the air. According to science, a foetus gets nutrients and oxygen from the mother. In this sense, it is not unlike a leech that sucks blood. Also, in the early stages, the foetus stays stationary and the blood does not flow, which renders it similar to a blood clot. Lastly, in the womb, the baby hangs from the uterus wall by the placenta and lies suspended.
11. The Big Bang Theory in Quran
The theory of the origin of the universe is one of the most noteworthy scientific things mentioned in the Quran. Until 100 years ago, it was believed that the universe has no creator and has always existed. But Albert Einstein, during his field equations study, challenged this belief when he presented the theory that the universe is an expanding force that is growing like a balloon. Later, a mathematician and Belgian priest proposed that this expansion must have begun from an initial and dense point.
The holy book of the Quran which came into existence centuries before the uncovering of the Big Bang theory details this idea. The text states that “do not the disbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were a closed-up mass (Ratqan), then we opened them out?” (Quran 21:31). The word Ratqan used in the text hints at darkness and closed up mass. This is exactly how the universe must have looked before the big bang happened.
12. The Big Crunch Theory in Quran
The Big Crunch theory that predicts how the universe will end is yet another scientific thing the Quran details. The idea based on Einstein’s general relativity theory talks about how the universe that began with the big bang will be eventually destroyed as its consequence. It is a hypothetical scenario that details the fate of the universe and explains that the expansion will eventually reverse at some point in time and the cosmos will collapse.
The holy Quran mentions this incident in passage 21:105 where it reads, “Remember the day when we shall roll up the heavens like the rolling up of written scrolls by a scribe.” The description provided in the Islamic scripture resembles the scenario confirmed by several physicists around the world.
13. Formation Of Clouds
Unlike today, when children in elementary school read about the formation of clouds, in 609 C.E., this was not the case. But, the Quran still aptly describes the process of the formation of clouds. The book says, “Have you not seen how Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it?”
This is an accurate description of what actually happens. In reality, the small clouds are pushed by the winds (moved gently), and the ones that are near each other amalgamate. At this point, a vertical updraft happens and the upper part of the cloud expands up in the sky. As a result, different parts of the cloud are raised to divergent points and look as if many clouds are piled on top of each other (stacking). The mention of this scientific fact in the Quran is ahead of time as this study only took place in the past two centuries.
14. The Frontal Lobe
In the Quran, there is a story of a man named Abu Jahl, an oppressive leader. To warn him, Allah said, “No indeed! if he does not stop, we will seize him by the forehead, his lying, sinful forehead.” Now, according to the followers of Islam, there is a deeper meaning behind this statement.
Modern research into anatomy suggests that the prefrontal area of the human brain deals with planning, aggression, and motivation. So, it is the part of our brain which is responsible for lying. Muslims believe that the mention of the forehead is specific and intentional and it is another scientific fact stated in the Quran.
Notably, the holy text of the Quran, written many centuries ago, hints at several discoveries ahead of their time. Many scientific facts in Quran are mentioned that could not have been known by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was born in the 7th century C.E. and did not know how to read or write. This indeed is proof of the divinity of the central text of Islam.