The Prophet Muhammad is a famous religious and political figure, is the central figure of Islam. He founded and headed the ummah – a Muslim community that became a large state of the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad is considered the last prophet and messenger of Allah, who received from him the holy scripture of the Koran.
The most significant and revered religious figure among Muslims is the Prophet Muhammad, through whose efforts the world learned what the Koran is and managed to read it. The life of the prophet himself cannot be called simple, he went through a thorny path, he knew what pain and experiences are. In today’s world, there are over a billion followers of Islam, a religious movement founded by the Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad was born on April 22, 571 in Mecca. The fact that this is a special child, his mother learned from an angel who dreamed of her once. On the day of his birth, several amazing incidents happened. Under the king of the Persians Kisra, the throne shuddered sharply, everyone thought that an earthquake had begun. Then fourteen balconies located in the royal hall collapsed down. At the time of his birth, Muhammad was already circumcised. As soon as the boy was born, he confidently raised his head and leaned on his hands.
Muhammad’s ancestors belonged to the elite Arab tribe of Quraish, and all members of the family were Hashemites. This clan got its name from Hashim, the great-grandfather of the future prophet. He was a very rich Arab, he had the honor of feeding the pilgrims. Muhammad’s father’s name was Abdollah, unlike his grandfather, he did not have any wealth, he was a small merchant, barely providing for his family. He was not lucky enough to raise his son, he died two months before his birth.
By law, the boy was given to the Bedouins of the Banu Sa’d tribe, where he was cared for by a woman named Halima. When the boy turned five, Aminna’s mother was able to take him to her, but the happiness was short-lived – she died a year later, and the six-year-old boy was left an orphan. At first, his grandfather took him to him, but after a while, Mohammed ended up with his uncle Abu-Talib. The man was distinguished by a kind character, but he could not provide the boy with a normal life due to extreme poverty. Muhammad learned early what work was, he had to earn his living. The boy was trusted to graze herds of sheep and goats of wealthy Meccans, paid for this a completely meager salary.
When Mohammed was twelve years old, his uncle took him to Syria, where the boy was first imbued with spiritual quest. He learned that people adhere to different faiths, that there is Christianity, Judaism, and other religions. Muhammad continued to work hard as a camel driver, then took up trade, but with particular zeal he studied religion and various faiths. At the age of twenty, he got a job as a clerk in the house of a widow named Khadiji. On behalf of his mistress, he traveled a lot around the country, studied local customs and religion.
Khadija was 15 years older than her clerk, but this did not stop her from making a marriage proposal to the young man. Her father was categorically against this relationship, but the woman managed to insist on her own. 25-year-old Muhammad married her, they lived happily, as this union was built on love and respect. Now the young man could not work, his wife had a good condition. Mohammed could devote time to what his soul had long been lying to. He took up spiritual quests, and from that time began his biography of a preacher and prophet.
The descriptions of the life of the chief prophet of Muslims that have come down to our time say that he liked to move away from everything worldly, was in thought and contemplation. Most of all, Muhammad liked the deserted gorges. In 610, during Muhammad’s stay in one of the caves on Mount Hira, he saw a vision of the archangel Jibril (Gabriel). From the lips of the archangel, the young man learned that he was the messenger of Allah on earth, and that he needed to remember the first few revelations (Quran).
After meeting with the archangel, Muhammad began to preach, and every day the number of his followers grew. He urged his fellow tribesmen to lead a righteous life, adhere to the commandments of Almighty Allah and be ready to face the future judgment of God. Muhammad convinced people that it was Allah who created everything living and inanimate on earth, including man.
The preacher often mentioned the names of his predecessors – Joseph, Moses, Zechariah, Jesus. However, he honored Abraham with a special place, whom he called the forefather of the Jewish and Arab people, the first preacher of monotheism. Muhammad considered his main task to restore the faith that Abraham brought to the people.
Muhammad’s sermons did not please the aristocratic circle of Mecca, they saw him as a threat to their power. A conspiracy began to be plotted against the prophet. Yielding to the persuasion of his associates, Muhammad leaves Mecca and moves to Medina. Together with him, in 622, several hundred believers left, from which a Muslim community subsequently formed.
The community grew stronger every day. The companions of the prophet were very offended by the Meccans for the expulsion of Muhammad and began to attack the caravans leaving this city. Everything that was obtained as a result of robbery passed into the community.
The situation changed in 630, when Muhammad decided to return to his native city. He entered Mecca very solemnly, as if those eight years of exile had never happened. Now the merchants gave him great honors, they were joined by crowds of people who came from all over Arabia. The Prophet paraded majestically through the streets of the city on his camel. He was wearing simple clothes and a black turban, and around him were several tens of thousands of admirers.
Muhammad returned to Mecca not as a triumphant, but as a simple worshiper. He walked through the holy places, performed the rites prescribed in this case, made a sacrifice. The saint circled the Kaaba seven times and touched the sacred Black Stone seven times.
IN THE KAABA, HE FIRST SAID THAT THERE IS NO OTHER GOD THAN THE ONE AND ONLY ALLAH. BY HIS ORDER, 360 IDOLS WERE DESTROYED IN THE TEMPLE.
The tribes living in the vicinity of Mecca did not want to accept Islam. Until many bloody wars passed and thousands of people died, only then they recognized Muhammad as a prophet and adopted a new religion. A little time passed, the prophet already commanded Arabia, became the creator of the most powerful Arab state. In Mecca, the preacher left his commanders and henchmen, and he went to Medina to visit his mother’s grave. He was pleased with the triumph of a new faith – Islam, and only one news overshadowed this joy – his only son Ibrahim, his hope and support, died.
Kaaba Mecca in antiquity
The sudden death of the heir had a bad effect on the health of Muhammad. He realized that his end was near, so he decided to visit Mecca again, maybe for the last time to pray to Allah in the Kaaba. The pilgrims heard about these plans of Muhammad and decided to pray with him. More than ten thousand pilgrims arrived in Mecca. The Prophet again traveled around the Kaaba on a camel, made a sacrifice. The followers of the prophet took his words hard, they understood that this sermon of his, most likely, was the last in his life.
The very name Muhammad in translation sounds like praised or worthy of praise. In the Koran, his name occurs 4 times, and sounds like a prophet (Nabi), a messenger (Rasul), a servant of God (Abd), a witness (Shahid). But the full name of Muhammad consists of the names of all ancestors on the father’s side, and begins with Adam. Often believers call the prophet Abul-Qasim.
One of the biggest holidays among Muslims – Maulid an-Nabi (the day of the Prophet Muhammad) falls on the twelfth day of the 3rd month of the lunar calendar Rabi al-awwal. The day on which Mohammed was born is also revered; it is considered the third largest holiday for adherents of Islam. Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Adha are in the first and second places in terms of importance. Muhammad himself noted only these dates.
Eid al Adha
On the day of the prophet, Muslims read prayers, try to do as many good deeds as possible, talk about the miracles performed by Muhammad. This day began to be celebrated three hundred years after the advent of Islam. The biography of the prophet and his most outstanding accomplishments were described in his book by Huseyn Javid, an Azerbaijani writer. He called his drama simply “Prophet”.
The life and fate of the main Islamic preacher is captured in several dozen paintings. In the 70s of the last century, a tape called “The Message (Muhammad is the Messenger of God)” appeared on the screens. In 2008, the series “Moon of the Hashim clan” of thirty episodes was presented to the audience. This tape was filmed in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan. In 2015, director Majid Majidi shot his film “Muhammad – the Messenger of the Almighty.”
Muhammad’s wife, Khadija, was much older and treated him with maternal warmth. The Prophet, leaving his trading affairs and daily chores, could freely engage in his favorite business – spiritual research. In this marriage, he had many sons, but none of them survived. After the death of Khadija herself, Mohammed tried many times to arrange his personal life, married several times. Moreover, information about the number of his wives is the most contradictory, some say that he had 15 of them, others say that 23, with thirteen of whom he slept.
Professor William Montgomery Watt, a well-known Arabist, explains the reason for such discrepancies in the number of Muhammad’s wives. He is sure that the representatives of the tribes really wanted to establish family ties with the prophet, so they “married” his compatriots as his wife. Muhammad married before the Qur’an forbade a Muslim to have more than four wives.
No one knows the exact number of Muhammad’s wives, but, according to researchers, there were thirteen of them. The first on this list is Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who violated her parental prohibition and married him. Historians come to the conclusion that it was her prophet who loved more than anyone else.
Of the remaining twelve wives of the preacher, the third one got the most love – Aisha bint Abk Bakr, the daughter of the caliph. She went down in history as the greatest of the 7 Islamic scholars of that time.
All the children of Muhammad, except for Ibrahim, were born in marriage with Khadija. She bore him seven children, but all the sons died as babies. Only the girls survived, became followers of their father, left Mecca, and settled in Medina. Father survived only one daughter – Fatima, others died during his lifetime. Fatima passed away six months after the death of Muhammad.
Mohammed felt the deterioration of his health when he went to Medina for the last time. Gathering his last strength, the prophet visited the graves of martyrs, performed a ritual – a funeral prayer. After returning to Medina, Muhammad remained in his right mind and clear memory, called his relatives and followers to say goodbye. Then he asked for forgiveness from everyone, released his slaves, distributed all his property to those in need. Every day the fever intensified, and on the night of June 8, 632, the prophet died.
Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad
According to the law, wives could not even wash the body of the deceased; this ceremony was performed by relatives in the male line. Muhammad was buried in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his death. Farewell to the prophet lasted for three days. The resting place of the Messenger of Allah was the house of his wife Aisha, where he died. After some time, a mosque was built in this place, which Muslims around the world revere as a shrine.
Believers traveling to Mecca often visit Medina, admiring the beauty of the mosque on the tomb of the prophet. Pink granite was used for its construction; it is inlaid with chasing, gold, and mosaics. In the central part of the mosque, they left an adobe hut where Muhammad slept and his grave.
Brief biography of the life of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The main events of the biography of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and brief theses of the main points from the biography of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, which are important for the history of Islam:
- In 570, Muhammad ﷺ was born in Mecca, after which, for the first four years of his life after birth, he lives in the Banu Sad Bedouin tribe with the nurse Halima bin Abu Zuaib.
- In 575, the nurse moved to live in Mecca, and little Mohammed ﷺ returned to his mother Amina.
- In the year 583, Muhammad ﷺ sets out with Abu Talib on a journey to Syria.
- In 585, Muhammad ﷺ takes part in the “blasphemous war”, in which, according to eyewitnesses, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ deflected arrows with a shield to protect his uncles.
- In 595, Muhammad ﷺ made a trip to Busra with the caravan of Khadija, after which he entered into marriage with Khadija.
- In 610, the first revelation was sent down to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, and from this his prophetic mission began.
- From 613, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ began to conduct public sermons.
- In 615, a number of companions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ migrated to Ethiopia, and his uncle Abu Talib took him under his protection.
- In 617, the Banu Hashim clan declared a boycott against Muhammad ﷺ.
- In 620, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ died, also in this year his wife Khadija died, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ himself made an attempt to move to At-Taif. In the same year, the boycott of the Banu Hashim clan against the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ ended.
- In the year 620, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ entered into a secret agreement with a number of residents of Medina, which concerned the arbitrator and his special role.
- In 621, the key events of the prophetic mission of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ took place – Isra and Miraj , and the first oath took place at Aqaba.
- In 622, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ made Hijra and moved to Medina.
- In 624, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ married Aisha. In the same year he took part in the Battle of Badr.
- In the year 625, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ married Hafsa, Zainab bint Khuzayma. In the same year, the Battle of Mount Uhud took place.
- In 626, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ took Ummah Salam as his wife.
- In 627, Rusool Allah (saw) married Juwayriyah bint Harith and Zainab bint Jahsh. In the same year, the battle at the moat took place.
- In 627, Rusool Allah (saw) married Safia bint Huai, Umm Habiba and Maimunu bin Harith.
- In 628, events such as the conclusion of the Treaty of Hudaibi and Baya Ridwan took place. In the same year, Zainab bin Harith tried to poison the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.
- In 629, Muslims led by Muhammad ﷺ undertook a peaceful pilgrimage to Mecca to the sanctuary at the Kaaba. In the same year, the Quraish violated the Hudaybi peace agreement.
- In 630, Mecca surrendered to the Muslim army led by the Prophet ﷺ, and groups from Bani Uqail, Bani Kilab, Bani Qudaa, Bani Kalb, Bani Bahra, Bali, Bani Hanzala bin Malik, Bani Tujib, Bani Ghatafan arrived in Medina to receive Islam.
- In 631 Bani Zubaida, Bani Rukh, Bani Hilal, Bani Abd al-Qays, Bani Murad, Bani Ans, Bani Hanifa, Bani Mahra, Bani Gafik, Bani Rahawiyyin, Bani Tujib, Bani Kinda, Bani Amir bin Sasaa, Bani Tai, Abna and Bani Azd.
- In 632, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ made a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca. In the same year, a group from Bani Mukharib, as well as Bani Naha, arrived in Medina to convert to Islam.
- June 8, 632 is the date of the death of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.
The names of the prophet Muhammad ﷺ and their meaning – how many names does the prophet ﷺ have
The name of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in translation means ” one who is worthy of praise ” or ” praised “. In the Holy Book of the Quran, the name “Muhammad” occurs four times. The Holy Book of the Quran refers to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ in the second person: in the Quran there are such appeals and names of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ as “nabi”, which means “prophet”, “rasul”, which means “messenger”, “abd”, which means “Servant of God”, as well as “Bashir”, which translates as “herald of joy”, “Nazir”, which translates as “warning”, and “Muzakkir”, which means “reminding”. He is also mentioned in the Qur’an as a “shaheed” or witness, and “dai”, which means “calling to God” in translation. In the Holy Qur’an, he is also called by the name Ahmad, which in Arabic means ” one who is worthy of praise. ““.
Full name of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The full name of Muhammad ﷺ contains the names of all those ancestors in the male line that are known, and this line is traced from Adam . Also in his full name is his kunya named after his son al-Qasim.
The full name of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ or all the names of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him: Abul-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (Sheiba) ibn Hashim (Amr) ibn Abd Manaf (al-Mughyra) ibn Kusay ibn Kilyab ibn Murra ibn Kaab ibn Luai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn an-Nadr ibn Kinana ibn Khuzayma ibn Mudrik (Amir) ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma’add ibn Adnan ibn Adad ibn Mukawvim ibn Nahur ibn Tayrah ibn Iarub ibn Yashjub ibn Nabit ibn Ismail ibn Azar (Tarikh) ibn Nahur ibn Sarug ibn Shalih ibn Irfhashad ibn Sam ibn Nuh ibn Lamk ibn Mattu Shalah ibn Ahnukh (Idris) ibn Yard ibn Mahlil ibn Kainan ibn Ianish ibn Shis ibn Adam .
According to the general opinion of Islamic scholars, the genealogy of the Prophet before Adnan ﷺ is considered reliable. As for the line of ancestors that preceded it, there are divergences. But at the same time, all scientists are unanimous in the fact that the last of the cited ancestors Adnan is one of the descendants of the prophet Ismail – the son of the prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon them both). It follows from this that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is a descendant of the Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him).
The believers treated the Messenger of Allah ﷺ respectfully, calling him by his kunya “Abul-Qasim” – only he wore this kunya during his lifetime. People who were hostile to him called him, mockingly, “Ibn Abu Kabsha”, implying that he is the son of Abu Kabsha. Abu Kabsha was the husband of his nurse Halima.
Birth of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ – Mawlid
Question: ” In what year was the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ born? ” – Answer: ” The year of birth of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is 571 according to the Christian calendar. The birthday of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is in April .”
Question: ” Where was the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ born? ” – Answer: ” In Mecca, a city on the territory of modern Saudi Arabia .”
Question: ” When and where did the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ die? ” – Answer: ” In Medina in 632 on June 8. ”
Day of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ or Mawlid al-Nabi (Mawlid) Muslims celebrate on the twelfth day of the third lunar month of Rabi al-awwal, starting to celebrate from sunset the day before. The celebration became a tradition on the 300th anniversary of the establishment of the religion of Islam. The date on which this holiday is celebrated is shifted forward every year by twelve days. However, Mawlid does not find any justification and confirmation in Islam . This holiday was invented by some adherents of innovations from the ignorant group of Batynites.
Family and descendants of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The family of the Prophet ﷺ is called “Ahlul Bayt”, it includes the wives of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, children, grandchildren and his other descendants.
Wives of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, according to the traditional point of view in Islam, had thirteen wives:
- Khadija bint Khuwaylid,
- Sauda bint Zama,
- Aisha bint Abu Bakr,
- hafsa bint umar,
- Zainab bint Khuzayma,
- Umm Salama bint Abu Umaya,
- Zainab bint Jahsh,
- Juwayriya bint al-Harith,
- Raihana bint Zeid,
- Safiya bint Huyay,
- Ramla bint Abu Sufyan,
- Maria al-Qibtiya,
- Maymuna bint al-Harith.
Children of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
- Qasim ibn Muhammad
- Abdullah ibn Muhammad
- Ibrahim ibn Muhammad.
- Zainab bint Muhammad,
- Ruqaiya bint Muhammad,
- Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad,
- Fatima bint Muhammad,
Khadija gave birth to the Prophet Muhammad all his children except for the son of Ibrahim. The boys who were born died at an early age, and the girls lived until the moment when the prophetic mission of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ began, after which everyone converted to Islam and participated in the resettlement of the family to Yathrib from Mecca. Before the death of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, all his children died, except for his daughter Fatima, who died six months after the death of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
Descendants of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ
From the daughter of Muhammad ﷺ Fatima descended the descendants of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ through his grandson Hasan and Hussein.
The origin of the Prophet of Allah Muhammad ﷺ leads from the Banu Hashim clan, which belonged to the Quraysh tribe. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born into a family that was not rich, but was of noble origin.
Childhood of the Prophet ﷺ
The mother of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Amina bint Wahb gave birth to a son when the father of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had already died: when Amina was in her second month of pregnancy, Muhammad’s father Abdullah ibn Abd al-Mutallib died during a trading trip on the road to Syria near Yathrib (according to some sources, Muhammad’s father died two months after his birth).
The care of the child fell on the shoulders of his grandfather Sheib ibn Hashim al-Qurashi or Abd al-Mutallib, who at that time headed the Hashim clan. Since at that time the Quraysh had a corresponding tradition, due to the unfavorable climate of Mecca for small children, little Mohammed ﷺ at the age of six months, like all children six months after birth, was given to the Bedouins for education – he fell into a tribe called Banu Saad, and in this tribe, the care of Muhammad ﷺ fell on the shoulders of Halima bint Abu Zayd. Halima raised him until the age of five, and then Muhammad was taken in by his own mother.
Around 577, Muhammad ﷺ went with his mother to Yathrib, where the mother planned to visit the grave of her husband, Muhammad ﷺ’s father Abdullah ibn Abd al-Mutallib. They stayed in Yathrib for about a month, after which they headed back to Mecca, but along the way, Muhammad Amin’s mother fell ill from a serious illness, and then died in a place called al-Abwa, which is located on the way from Yathrib to Mecca. Two years later, his grandfather Abd al-Mutallib, the guardian of Muhammad ﷺ, also died, and his uncle Abu Talib, who took the place of the head of the Hashim clan, began to take care of the child.
When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ reached adolescence, he began to accompany his uncle on business trips on trade issues: on trade trips to Syria, he gains invaluable experience in trade.
It is said that at the age of nine, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, on his way to Syria, when he accompanied the Meccan caravan, met a Christian monk, whose name was Bahira. This monk Bahira predicted to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, based on what was said in the Holy Scriptures, that the path of the prophet awaits him in the future.
There is little information about the life of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ during his late youth. Among the reliable information:
It is reported that the Prophet ﷺ took part in the conclusion of an alliance of honor, which took place in the house of Abdullah ibn Jud’an, one of the leaders of the Quraish tribe. There were five clans that concluded the treaty – Bani Hashim, Bani Al-Muttalib, Bani Asad, Bani Zuhra and Bani Taym. They swore that in Mecca they would help all those offended in returning to them the property seized from them by force or deceit, regardless of whether the victims belonged to these five clans or to others.
At the conclusion of this alliance, along with the brothers of his father, Muhammad ﷺ was also present, who, after Allah honored him by handing him His message to the people, said: “ In the house of Abdullah ibn Jud’an, I witnessed the conclusion of such an alliance, which I did not exchange if I were on red camels, and if Islam called for such a treaty, I would definitely join it .”
At the age of twenty, Muhammad ﷺ led a completely independent life, and could do without the guardianship of his uncle. Muhammad was hired by Khadija bint Khuwaylid , who was one of the wealthy widows of Mecca. The character of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his mind, and especially his honesty, so subdued Khadija that she offered him marriage.
At the time of their marriage, Khadijah had reached the age of forty years, while the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was only twenty-five years old. In this marriage, they had several sons, all of whom died as infants, as well as four daughters – Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum, Zainab and Fatima. Khadija remained the only wife of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ until her death in 619.
Beginning of prophecy
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ led a pious lifestyle, loved to be in solitude, to meditate, sometimes retired for several days in a row, and once a year he retired for a whole month in the cave of Mount Hira near Mecca.
When he was forty years old, in 610, one day, being in solitude in a cave, the angel Jibril appeared to him, who addressed with the following words: “ Read! In the name of your Lord, who created – created a man from a clot. Read! And your Lord, the Most Generous, who taught by means of a writing reed, taught man what he did not know “(Sura Al-Alaq | Blood clot, verses 1-5). This began a series of revelations that were sent down to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ until his death in 632.
After his death, all these revelations, which were memorized by heart and written down on scrolls by his companions, were collected in a book that became the Holy Book of Muslims, the Quran.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ at first was afraid of the revelations that were sent down to him, he had doubts about the nature of their origin, he even thought that he was in the power of evil spirits, jinn. His wife Khadija helped him to cope with such doubts, who convinced the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that the voice with which the Revelation was sent down to him was the voice of the angel Jibril or Gabriel, and the visions that were sent down to him were messages from the Almighty. Thanks to the support of his wife Khadija, with whom they went together to her uncle named Waraka, an expert on the Bible, who confirmed the prophetic mission of Muhammad ﷺ, Muhammad ﷺ was convinced that he was chosen by the Almighty God as his Messenger (rasul) and prophet (nabi) for spreading the word of God.
Sermons of the Prophet ﷺ
The first revelations that were sent down to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ proclaimed the greatness of Allah, the One and Only God. The first revelations contained a rejection of polytheism, which was common in Arabia at that time, and also indicated that the coming of the Day of Judgment was inevitable, and warned that the dead would rise, and then, those who did not believe in the One Almighty Allah would be waiting for punishment in Hell .
The sermons of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ were perceived negatively and with ridicule by his contemporaries, but over time, he began to be surrounded by constant supporters who recognized that Muhammad ﷺ is the prophet of God – these companions of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ listened attentively to his stories about what was revealed to him in revelations. The sermons of Muhammad ﷺ seemed dangerous to the leaders of Mecca, since the customs of the ancestors at that time were elevated to a cult, and what the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ spoke about could destroy this established system. Therefore, the supporters of Muhammad ﷺ began to endure harassment from the Quraysh nobility, even though Muhammad ﷺ himself was under the tutelage of his uncle Abu Talib. His uncle did not accept Islam, but protected his nephew as a member of his family.
Migration in the way of Allah
The wife of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ died in 619, and after that his uncle Abu Talib also died, and Abu Lahab stood at the head of the Hashemite clan, who not only did not protect the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, but also harmed the Prophet ﷺ and Muslims in every possible way, as a result of which The Messenger of Allah ﷺ had to look for supporters outside of Mecca.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ with his sermons addressed the merchants who visited the city on their trading business, as well as people in other cities, as a result of which the fame of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ spread. His fame grew, and in 621 the inhabitants of the Yathrib oasis, located north of Mecca, about four hundred kilometers from it, turned to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to act as an arbitrator in their dispute between the clans. They also invited the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to become their ruler and recognized him as God’s prophet. Before Muhammad ﷺ, many Muslims from Mecca moved to Yathrib, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ himself moved there at the end of 622.
This event became the starting point for the new Muslim calendar, according to which the years are counted according to the Hijra, that is, from the moment the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ migrated to Yathrib from Mecca. From that moment on, the city of Yathrib began to be called Madinat an-Nabi, which means “City of the Prophet”, in abbreviation this name sounded like al-Madina or Medina.
Creation of a Muslim community
From that time, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ became not just a simple preacher – he became the political leader of the Muslim community or ummah. In his reign, Muhammad ﷺ relied on the support of the Muslims who moved with him from Mecca – these were the Muhajirs and on the newly converted local residents – the Ansar.
A house was built for the Prophet ﷺ in Medina, and the first mosque in Medina was built near this house . Also, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ established the basic rules of Muslim religious rites – the rules of prayer , the rules of fasting and ablution , and other aspects of the life of a Muslim.
Revelations were sent down to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, in which the rules for the life of the Muslim community were explained in detail. The revelations sent down principles on how inheritance should be carried out, how property should be divided and how marriage should be carried out, and prohibitions were sent down for Muslims to engage in usury, gambling, drinking wine and pork for food.
Battles of the Prophet ﷺ
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ set as his task to free Mecca from the polytheists who dominated it, and to cleanse the Kaaba from pagan rituals and idols.
As soon as the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ moved to Medina, he began to prepare to fight the Meccans, who did not accept Islam and began to threaten the security of Medina. In 624, the famous battle of Badr took place , when a small detachment of Muslims, led by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, defeated the Meccan militia, which greatly outnumbered the Muslims. This victory was taken as proof that Allah is helping the Muslims.
The Meccans launched an attack on Medina in 625, resulting in the famous battle of Mount Uhud , where the Muslims suffered losses, but the Meccans did not continue the offensive and retreated. The defeat of the Muslims happened due to tactical errors, and the disobedience of a group of archers who left their positions, believing that victory was already in their hands.
There were internal difficulties in the camp due to the fact that a number of newly-minted Muslims from Medina expressed their dissatisfaction with the fact that power was concentrated in the hands of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, and actively contacted Mecca, forming an internal opposition among the Medinans. The Holy Book of the Quran repeatedly mentions this group of people, called munafiqun or hypocrites. In the year 627, the famous Battle of the Moat takes place, when a 10,000-strong army of polytheists besieged Medina in order to destroy all Muslims along with the Prophet ﷺ. But their plans were not destined to come true, thanks to the help of Almighty Allah and the stamina shown by three thousand Muslims, the two-week siege ended in the defeat of the polytheists.
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in 628 moved with his companions in the direction of Mecca to make a small pilgrimage, stopping at Hudaybiya, where negotiations were held between Muslims from Medina and representatives of Mecca, and during these negotiations an agreement was reached on a truce. Under this agreement, the Meccans provided the opportunity to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Kaaba .
This pilgrimage or umrah was made a year later by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his companions. During this time, the Medina community strengthened itself, conquering the oases located north of Medina, as well as gaining new nomadic tribes as allies.
Capture of Mecca: Hundreds of thousands convert to Islam and the death of the Prophet ﷺ
At the onset of 630, the Muslim army entered Mecca without hindrance. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ granted forgiveness to his former enemies, and he himself went to the Holy Kaaba to cleanse the shrine of pagan idols and pray to Allah Almighty in it.
But the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did not return to live in Mecca, and after that he only made a pilgrimage ( hajj ) in 632.
Mecca was visited by rulers and chiefs from various clans to negotiate alliance agreements, and many of them declared their willingness to convert to Islam.
From 631 to 632, a large part of the Arabian Peninsula was included in the political entity, which was headed by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
The Prophet Muhammad died in 632 after a sudden, brief illness overtook him. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was buried in the house of Aisha, now the grave of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is located in the main mosque of Medina (the mosque of the Prophet).
Personality of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The appearance of Mohammed ﷺ was different from what most Qahtanite Arabs looked like, since the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was a descendant of the prophet Ismail, and Ismail was an Adnanite Arab. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had lighter skin. Also, contemporaries testified that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had broad shoulders, was of medium height and had large feet and hands.
According to the testimony of the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was the owner of a large thick beautiful beard, and his eyes and mouth were large. Also, the special features of his face include the fact that the eyes of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ were framed by long eyelashes, his eyebrows were curved.
There is an indication that on the body of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ there was a “seal of prophecy” – located between the shoulder blades on the back.
The historian and theologian of Islam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari describes the appearance of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in his book “The General History”. He mentions that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was of medium height, he could not be called both tall and short. He describes the skin of his face as pinkish-white, mentions that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had dark eyes, and also that he was the owner of black, thick, shiny, long and beautiful hair that fell on his shoulders.
Ibn Jarir al-Tabari pays special attention to the gait of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: he writes that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had a lively gait, and his steps were so light that it seemed that he did not even touch the ground when walking. The author of the book also notes that the gait of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was devoid of the pride that is usually present in the gait of the powerful of this world.
The author of the book writes that the face of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was lit up with kindness so much that it was impossible to look away, and even the hungry forgot about food as soon as they saw his kind face, and the sufferers could forget about their troubles, just from the sight of his softness hell and at the sound of his soft speech.
There is a quality in which absolutely all people who have ever met the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ agreed – they all believed that they had not met a person in their life with whom a conversation would be so pleasant.
In addition to the above descriptions of his face, the book also mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was the owner of a straight nose. The book also mentions the habit of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ sometimes to collect his long hair in one, two or four buns. At the time when the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reached the age of sixty-two, he had several gray hairs.
Regarding the clothing style of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, it is mentioned that he preferred white clothes, preferring qamis, that is, long shirts, as well as khibara, that is, a Yemeni striped cloak.
It is mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ wore a silver ring on his finger, on which was the inscription “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was distinguished by cleanliness, he often used incense, and regularly brushed his teeth with a miswak (tooth stick).
The hoarse voice of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, his eloquence, as well as the brevity and clarity of his judgments are also mentioned. His habit of repeating the same thing three times is also noted, if he wanted his words to be memorized by the listeners.
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was often seen with a smile, and sometimes laughing so openly that his molars were visible.
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and other prophets
In Islam, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was not the only prophet – the religion of monotheism in its entire history before the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has from one hundred twenty-four to two hundred twenty-four thousand prophets. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is not the only one, but the last in the chain of prophets of Islam, that is, nabis, and he is also the last messenger of Allah ﷺ or rasul.
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ differs from other prophets also in that Allah did not send him to any particular settlement or a certain people – the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was sent to all mankind.
The law that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ brought to all the people of the earth will remain valid until the Day of Judgment , while the laws that the rest of the messengers of Allah brought to the world were temporary, and when the prophetic mission of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ began, they lost their force.
This explains the fact that Muslims accept the Holy Scriptures – Torah or Taurat, the Psalter or Zabur, the Gospel or Injil, but their laws are not recognized as valid, indicating that in the subsequent time these laws were distorted by people, calling it the term “tahrif”.
Among all the other prophets in Islam, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ occupies a special position, he is called the “Lord of the Prophets”, because he is placed above all the prophets. The Islamic religion proclaims faith in the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his prophetic mission not only obligatory for all people, but also one of the pillars of the faith of Islam, and not only Muslims, but all people on earth must believe in the prophetic mission of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, follow him a call to save your soul and believe in the One God – the Creator of all things, who sent down the laws of Sharia .
Religious Teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The teaching of Islam says that Muhammad ﷺ is the last of the prophets, as well as the last of the messengers of Allah. All the righteous showed obedience to the One God, including those who were followers of the teachings of the prophet Isa , the prophet Musa , as well as other prophets known from the Bible. But people subsequently distorted the teachings that were sent down to the Jewish and Christian peoples, so the previous teachings lost their relevance after the Koran was sent to people.
The Qur’an is the last Holy Scripture, the word of Allah Almighty, and this Scripture has not been and will not be subject to any changes. The will of the Almighty is such that the Last Scripture or the Holy Book of the Quran is written in Arabic, and the Arabic language is special for Muslims, the Quran translated into any other language is no longer Scripture – but only the Holy Book of the Quran in its Arabic version. For this reason, translations of the Qur’an into other languages of the world are called “meaning translations”.
The Holy Quran was sent down to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in parts, and this is explained in the text of the Holy Scripture by the fact that the Almighty so desired to root faith in the heart of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Also, the verses and suras of the Quran were sent down by the Almighty according to what events took place in the life of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, and what questions his companions asked him – so the impression of the revealed revelations was incommensurably greater than if all the suras and verses of the Quran were sent down at once.
Also, in a number of cases, revelations sent down later canceled those that were sent down before them. Takes up the basic opinion that in the Meccan revelations of legal regulations, less was revealed than after the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ moved to Medina.
Often among the verses and suras of the Qur’an there are those in which the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ contains commands – for example, in the Qur’an the word “kul” is repeated three hundred and thirty-two times, which in Arabic means “say.”
Bible and Torah: indications of prophecy and the coming of Muhammad ﷺ
The Bible is recognized by Islam as Holy Scripture, therefore in the Muslim religion there are frequent indications that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is said in the Bible, where he is called God’s Messenger. The Holy Book of the Quran says: “ Those to whom We have given the Scripture know it as they know their sons. However, some of them deliberately hide the truth “(Sura 2. Cow, verse 146).
Muslims also point out that the modern version of the Bible has been distorted, and these distortions, as stated in some hadiths, just touched the part of the Bible that says about the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Christians, some of whom admit that the Bible has been corrupted, do not agree with this position.
Evidence for the position of Muslims is based on the biblical verse, which refers to the appeal of the Lord to Moses: in it the Lord says that he will raise up a prophet to people who will be from their midst, mentioning: “ such as you ”, who will convey the words of God to people, and, according to Muslims, such words cannot be said about a Jesus who is not like Moses, and in the quote there is an indication of “such as you.”
According to the authoritative Islamic preacher Ahmet Didat, the main differences between Jesus, Moses and Muhammad ﷺ were in several positions:
- Muslims recognized the miraculous birth of Jesus, Muhammad ﷺ and Moses were born from a father and mother;
- Jesus had no children and did not marry, while Moses married and the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ married repeatedly and left behind a rich offspring;
- Jesus was not recognized by his own people, as happened with Moses and the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ;
- Jesus did not become a king or lord who would have the power to control the lives of his people, unlike Muhammad ﷺ and Moses, who ruled their tribes;
- according to Ahmed Deedat, Jesus was sent into the world to fulfill the old law, and did not bring the new law with him.
According to Christian theologians, in a quotation from the Bible, which is also often cited by Muslims and where there are the words ” Prophet from among their brothers “, which indicate that Arabs and Jews have a common origin, there cannot be a speech about the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, since the Old Testament, in all cases where there was an indication “from among the brothers”, meant precisely the Jews, therefore the opinion of Christian theologians is such that in this case we are talking about Jesus Christ.
The last sermon of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ delivered his last sermon in the tenth year of the Hijri. At the head of fourteen thousand Muslims, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ went to Mecca from Medina to perform the Hajj. When the ninth month of Zul-Hijjah came, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ called the Muslims who came to Mecca for the Hajj, and gathered them at Mount Jabal al-Rahman near Arafat, and then delivered a speech to them.
In this sermon, Muhammad ﷺ noted the following important points:
- about the fact that the blood of a person, his property and his honor are inviolable and sacred until such time as they appear before God ” just as this day and this month are sacred to all of you “, and that each person will answer before God;
- that each person will be responsible only for those crimes and sins that he personally committed, and the son will not be responsible for the crimes of his father, as well as vice versa;
- about the brotherhood of Muslims and about the fact that only then can one take the good of another when there is his good will for it, and that one cannot oppress each other;
- that blood feud is as much a relic of the past as paganism and delusions;
- that “ usury is forbidden, but you can recover the nominal amount of the debt ”, and that you cannot do injustice towards people, and then people will not do injustice towards you;
- in this sermon, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ commanded Muslims to fear Allah in relations with women, because, as men have rights in relation to their wives, so their wives have rights in relation to their men. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ bequeathed Muslim men to lead their wives and do it kindly;
- The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ bequeathed to obey his leaders and obey them, whoever they are, if they stand at the head of the Muslim Ummah and fulfill their duties in accordance with the instructions of Allah;
- also the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in this sermon spoke about marriage and bequeathed to Muslims not to break marriage bonds, saying that those who break them will deserve severe punishment, and also said that children belong only to the marriage bed;
- The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ spoke in his last sermon that he leaves to the Muslims the Book of Allah – the Holy Quran, as well as his Sunnah, and they are the law that Muslims must adhere to in order not to stray from the Righteous path;
- The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in this sermon called on Muslims to take care of their slaves, feed them food from their table and dress them in the same clothes that their masters wear;
- The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said that all people have one father and one Lord, therefore there are no peoples higher or lower, and an Arab does not take precedence over a non-Arab, just as a white person should not put himself higher than a black or yellow-skinned one. A person has an advantage over the rest – only if he is more God-fearing.
Mention in the Quran
The Holy Book of the Koran mentions the name of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ only five times: the name of the prophet Isa or Jesus is mentioned much more often – twenty-five mentions. The same number of times the Prophet Adam is mentioned in the Qur’an, and the Prophet Moses is mentioned in the Holy Scriptures as many as one hundred and thirty-six times. Of the other prophets , Noah is mentioned forty-three times in the Qur’an, and Abraham sixty-nine.
The name of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is mentioned in verses 144 and 145 of the third sura, 40th verse of the thirty-third sura, 2nd verse of the forty-seventh sura and 29th verse of the forty-eighth sura, and in the sixth verse of the sixty-first sura he is referred to as Ahmad. In the forty-seventh chapter of the Qur’an, the Messenger of Allah is called Muhammad ﷺ.
Miracles of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The Koran is the main miracle of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, according to Islamic theologians. Some sources, which are non-Muslim, may attribute the authorship of the Koran to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ himself, if you analyze the transmitted hadiths, you can clearly see how different the speech of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was from the Koranic speech. All connoisseurs of Arabic literature recognize the highest artistic level of the speech of the Koran. According to Bernhard Weiss, nothing like this has been written to humanity in its entire past and present history.
Another miracle of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is the division into two parts of the moon. To describe this miracle, they refer to a quote from the Koran, which tells about the case when the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was required to perform some kind of miracle in order to prove his chosenness and messenger and prophetic mission, and then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ showed people the Moon, which was divided in two – this is told in the hadith transmitted from Anas in the collection of al-Bukhari.
Another miracle of the Prophet Mohammed ﷺ is described in the food legend, which is similar to the biblical story of the five loaves with which Jesus fed five thousand people. In the legend about the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, it is told how during the journey people’s food supplies were depleted and they, being on the verge of starvation, turned to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ for help to allow them to slaughter camels, to which the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ agreed. When they were walking back, they met Umar, and they told him about this permission, to which Umar asked how they were going to survive without camels? But then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ordered Umar to call the people and bring all the food they had left. Then they spread the skins and spread all the remaining food on them, after which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ turned to the Almighty with a request to bless this food. After that, people began to approach this heap of food on the instructions of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and take from it for their livelihood, and no matter how much they took, there was still enough food left. After that, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said these words: “ I testify that no one has the right to be worshiped except Allah, and I am his messenger .”
Another miracle of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is described in the story of how the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ received water from his fingers, which was told from the words of Anas bin Malik: Anas bin Malik saw the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ before the Asr prayer was to begin. At that moment, people needed water to perform a ritual bath, but people could not find water anywhere. When they brought a full pot of water to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ so that he could perform ablution, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ dipped his fingers into this water and told people to perform ablution with water from this pot. Anas bin Malik said that he saw with his own eyes how water poured from the fingers of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in such quantity that it was enough for all people to wash.
Another miracle of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is described in the story of the sighing trunk of a palm tree. This incident occurred when the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was in Medina: during his sermon, he climbed a trimmed palm tree trunk. Later, instead of a stump, a minbar or pulpit was installed. But when the tree was left alone, the palm began to groan. The Prophet ﷺ went down and clung to her until the palm tree died down. Then the Prophet ﷺ said: “ She wept, longing for the words of the remembrance of Allah that she had heard before .”
In addition to the above, in the hadiths and biographies of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ there are descriptions of many other miracles of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. These miracles include such as the story of digging a ditch around Medina, the predictions of Muhammad ﷺ, which came true in the time of his companions, and others came true after the death of the Prophet ﷺ.
The Arab world after the death of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ, at the time of his death, conquered, leading the armies of Muslims, the entire Arabian Peninsula, and his followers, who after him became caliphs , continued these great conquests, annexing large Asian territories to the Muslim world, as well as the possessions of Byzantium in Africa.
Criticism of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
The first opponents of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his critics were his own tribesmen, the Quraysh, who treated his prophetic mission with unbelief and conservatism and did not recognize that Muhammad ﷺ is the Prophet of God. This criticism is mentioned in the Holy Book of the Quran and in the biographical traditions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.
In modern times, the personal life of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is also criticized. Some sources criticize his marriage to Aisha and state that he married his wife Aisha when she was only nine years old. However, it should be noted that at that time early marriages were widespread among the Arabs and also among other peoples, and the contemporaries of Muhammad ﷺ themselves did not criticize him for such an act, although from the biography of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and the Holy Quran there is a clear desire of the opponents of Muhammad ﷺ to find some or shortcomings or flaws in the Prophet ﷺ in order to defame him in the eyes of other people. Moreover, Aisha was far ahead of her peers in physical and mental development, Aisha said that a girl, having reached nine years old, is already a woman, which corresponds to the truth of that time, confirmed in the content of the messages.Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi’i .