Islam is a rational religion. This began to take shape among Muslim scholars after the spread of Islam related to the interpretation of the Qur’an (tafsir); Tradition (Hadith) and Asma’ al-Rijal (biography of Hadith scholars), Sirah (Biography of the Prophet) and Maghazi (Battle of the Prophet); Usul al-Din (theology), Fiqh (fiqh) and Usul al-Fiqh (methodology/principles) (principles of Fiqh). Arabic was classified by Ibn Khaldun as an auxiliary language of knowledge for explaining the terminology of the Qur’an. It would therefore appear that during the 1st and 2nd centuries Hijri a number of new subjects were gradually developed to explain the Qur’an . Qur’an; Islamic tradition and history ; the study of the basic sciences of religion is prioritized above eyesanother lesson.
The Islamic scholar Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi’i (d. 204/820) classifies science into two broad categories, the science of the body (‘ilm al-abdan) and the science of religion (‘ilm al-adyan). In the hierarchy of sciences, Islamic scholars place religious subjects at the top of their list, despite the secular sciences; such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and philosophy are recognized as useful branches of knowledge.
The tradition of rationality in Islam
From the ‘Abbasid period onwards, Muslims were devoted readers of religion, science and philosophy. In fact, the science of religion and philosophy developed in parallel. Although some religious scholars (ulama and jurists) underestimate the science of philosophy]; such secular subjects , however; widely tolerated, allowed to thrive in Islamic societyand in accommodation in the educational curriculum. The critical attitude of the scholars towards the philosophical sciences has recently drawn sharp criticism from some orientalists. More often than not, it seems quite clear that there is no clear division between the sacred and the profane sciences. Usually scholars of the caliber of Ibn Khaldun divide knowledge into two groups; namely the traditional sciences (‘ulum naqliyah) and the philosophical sciences (‘ulum’aqliyah).
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Islam includes various dimensions of Science
Many eminent scholars emphasize the unity of knowledge. Thus scientists of the caliber of Jabir bin Hayyan, al-Kindi, al-Khwarizmi, al-Razi, al-Biruni, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina; as proficient in the (sacred) religious sciences as in profane medicine, philosophy, astronomy or mathematics. They are aware of the various dimensions of science.
The Prophet Muhammad is credited with a number of statements about hygiene, health and medicine. These are gathered together and are known by Muslims as the Prophet’s medicine (al-tibb al-nabawi). A number of books bear this title, including one by Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah and another by al-Suyuti. These books contain some of the authentic statements of the Prophet and include herbal remedies and natural remedies. Drinking honey and reading the Qur’an is recommended as a panacea for all kinds of diseases.
One of these traditions asserts that every disease has a cure. In other words, Allah has provided a cure for all kinds of ailments. Commenting on this and other hadiths, Muhammad Asad says that when his followers read the words of the Prophet (quoted in al-Bukhyii); “Allah has not sent down a disease without sending down a cure as well.” They understood from this statement that by seeking a cure they would contribute to the fulfillment of God’s will. So medical research invested in the sanctity of religious duty Ibn Khaldun, when commenting on the Prophet’s medicine, said that it resembled the nomadic type of medicine, which was not part of divine revelation, and therefore not an obligation. Muslims to practice it.
It is generally believed by Muslims that there is no contradiction between religion and science.